Areas of interest and expertise are Latin America (especially Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru), Southeast Asia (especially Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam) and North Africa and the Middle East (especially Libya and to a lesser degree, Syria). Strategic Planning and Commercial Manager, Caterpillar Inc. (1973-2001); Chairman, Board of Directors, Illinois Stewardship Alliance (2001-Present); International Advisory Board, Journal of Libyan Studies (2001-Present); Board of Directors, International Marine Certification Institute, Brussels, Belgium (1993-2001); Board of Directors, Hindustin PowerPlus, Ltd, Bangalore, India. (1990-1992); Board of Trustees, Knox College (1982-1985) Author of 200 books, articles and reviews on the Arab world, Andean America and Southeast Asia with output roughly split between the three geographical areas. Recent publications include: “Libya and the United States: Elements of a Performance-based Road Map,” Middle East Policy (Fall 2003); “Latin America: new ideas for old problems,” San Juan Star (3 August 2003); “Round Up the Usual Suspects: The Prospects for Regime Change in Libya,” Journal of Libyan Studies (Summer 2003); “Ramï¿½n Castilla: Chief Executive, Warrior, Diplomat,” Polï¿½tica Internacional (Summer 2003); “Grey Days in Peru,” The World Today (August/September 2003); “Libyan Foreign Policy: Newfound Flexibility,” Orbis (Summer 2003); “The Bush Doctrine, the Middle East and Latin America,” Polï¿½tica Internacional (Summer 2003); “Lessons from Qaddafi,” Foreign Policy in Focus (14 March 2003); “Peaceful Approach Worked in Libya,” Providence Journal (27 February 2003); “New Era in American-Libyan Relations,” Middle East Policy (September 2002); Libya and the United States: Two Centuries of Strife (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002); “Terrorism in American-Libyan Relations,” MEI Policy Brief (May 2002); “Qaddafi_s Rogue Nation Coming In from the Cold,” Journal Star (26 May 2002); “Same Space, Different Dreams: Bolivia_s Quest for a Pacific Port,” The Bolivian Research Review (July 2001); “The Gaza Strip – West Bank and Bolivia_s Quest for Sovereign Access to the Pacific Ocean,” Land Corridor Project (26 April 2002); “The United States, the Cold War & Libyan Independence,” Journal of Libyan Studies (Winter 2001); “Land Boundaries of Indochina,” Boundary and Security Bulletin (Spring 2001); “Libya in Africa: Looking Back, Moving Forward,” Journal of Libyan Studies (Summer 2000); “Misreading the Tea Leaves in Hanoi,” Northwestern Journal of International Affairs (Winter 1999); La Polï¿½tica Exterior del Perï¿½ (Lima, 1999) and the Historical Dictionary of Libya, 3rd edition (Scarecrow Press, 1998). Also author of the most recent essays on Libya in the Africa Contemporary Record, on Libya and Vietnam in the Encyclopedia of Religious Practices and on Libya and Syria in the Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Home Email:
It was only in the 1990s that Qaddafi began to change his ways. A combination of bilateral U.S. sanctions, quiet diplomacy, and a multilateral UN sanctions regime played a major role in the shift in Libyan foreign policy.