The 17 minerals that comprise rare earth elements play a major role in renewable energy technology like wind turbines and electric car batteries. They can be found in many countries, but China has taken the lead in the mining and processing of the minerals. Given the critical nature of the energy transition, the United States, European Union, and other countries are now trying to secure greater access to these strategic resources.
Who are the major players in the global supply chain of rare earth elements? How is the production and distribution of these minerals changing? How can the supply chain be transformed in the direction of environmental justice?
Jojo Nem Singh is an Assistant Professor in International Development at the International Institute of Social Studies in The Hague, part of Erasmus University Rotterdam. He has served as an expert consultant on several projects with development agencies and international NGOs. He is currently overseeing a multi-country research project on the global supply chain of rare earth elements.
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